Glossary of Technical Terms - Appendix - I
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The Silvicultural Systems

The Silvicultural systems can be conveniently classified according to the method of carrying out the fellings which remove the mature crop with a view to regeneration, and the type of crop produced by the method of the regeneration employed.

Each System produces a crop of distinctive form in the young stages, though after some years have clasped it is usually possible to treat the crop as either even-aged (uniform) or uneven-aged (irregular) purposes of management.

Index to the Silvicultural Systems

1. High Forest Systems

Systems of Concentrated regeneration

Selection Systems

Accessory Systems

Clear Felling Systems

Shelterwood Systems

  1. The selection system.
  2. The group selection system.
  1. Two storied high forest system.
  2. High forest with reserves systems.
  3. Improvement fellings.
  1. The clear felling systems.
  2. The clear strip system.
  3. The alternate strip system.
  1. The uniform system.
  2. The group system.
  3. The shelterwood strip system.
  4. Wagner's Blender-saumcschlag.
  5. Eberhard's wedge system.
  6. The strip and group systems.
  7. The irregular shelterwood system.
  8. The India irregular shelterwood system.

2. Coppice Systems.

  1. The simple coppice system.

  2. The shelterwood coppice system.

  3. The coppice with standards system.

  4. The coppice with reserves system.

  1. The coppice of two rotations system.

  2. The selection coppice system.

  3. The pollard system.

  1. High Forest System, where the regeneration is normally of seedling origin, either natural or artificial (or a combination of both) and where the rotation is generally log. (Fr. Futaie, Ger. Hochwald).

    System if concentrated regeneration, where the regeneration fellings are for the time beings concentrated on part of the felling series.

    Clear felling System, where the mature crop is removed in one operation.

    Shelterwood system, where the mature crop is removed in a series of operations, the first of which is the seeding felling (Fr. Coupe d'ensemencement. Ger. Samenhieb) and the last are the final felling (Fr. Coupe definitive. Ger. Endhieb.). Other felling, if any, are called secondary felling. (Fr. Coupe secondary. Ger. Nachhieben.). The interval between the seeding felling and the final felling on a particular area, such as a compartment, it the regeneration interval and determines the degree of uniformity of the resulting crop.

    Selection system, where regeneration fellings are distributed over the whole felling series (except in so far as a felling cycle introduces a modification) and the crop is always irregular.

    Accessory system, resulting in irregular or two storied high forest.

  2. Coppice Systems, where the crop originates mainly from coppice and where the rotation of the coppice is short.

Clear Felling Systems.



Type of Crop

Clear Felling System

Fr. Coupe blanche

Coupe a banc etoc.

Coupe unique

Coupes rase.

Ger. Kahlschlag.

Clear felling by compartments of sub-compartment

Usually artificial often by taungya.

Natural regeneration is sometimes possible from adjoining areas or from seed already on the ground, or from coppiced advance growth.

Very even-aged.

The clear strip system

Fr. Coupe blanche par bouquets.

Ger. Saumschalg.

Clear felling by strip, which progress across the regeneration area.

Usually artificial, though natural regeneration is often possible from adjoining areas.


The alternate strip system

Ger. Kulissenhieb.

Clear-felled strips alternating with unfelled strips.

Partly natural on the cleared strips and partly artificial.


Shelterwood Systems.



Type of Crop

Regeneration Interval

The Uniform system.

Fr. Regeneration par coupes successive.

Ger. Schirmschlag. Schirmgrasschlag,

Seeding felling uniform over a compartment or sub-compartment

Mainly natural often largely assisted by artificial regeneration.



The Group system.

Fr. Coupe par bouquets.

Ger. Horstwiese-betrib.

Femelschlag. (Gavaria).




Seeding felling in-groups over compartments.

Subsequent fellings to enlarge the groups.

Mainly natural though control of the mixture is often assisted by sowings and plantings.

Uneven when young by even-aged later.


The shelterwood strip system.

Fr. Coupe par bandes.

Ger. Schirmsaumschlag.

Regeneration fellings in strips, progressing across the regeneration area. Strips wide and progress rapid.

Mainly natural



Wagner's bledersaumschlag.

Progressive strips which are very narrow and run E and W to afford protection against the sun.


More or less even-aged.

Relatively short.

Eberhard's Wedge Systems.

Ger. Keilschirmschlag.

Strips opened up as wedges.




The strip and group system.

Progressive strips opened up by groups.

Mainly natural

More or less even-aged.

Relatively short.

The irregular shelterwood system.

The Swiss or Baden Femelschlag.

Irregular and gradual opening of the canopy, usually in-groups and often followed by strip fellings.




The Indian irregular shelterwood system.

The fellings resemble the uniform system by large numbers of advance growth of various ages and sizes up to 16" d.b.h. is retained generally in-groups as part of the future crop.




Selection Systems.



Type of Crop

The selection system.

Fr. Fardinage.

Ger. Plenterbetrieb.

Trees removed singly in selection fellings.



The group selection system.

Ger. Horstweise Plenterbetrieb.

Trees removed in small groups



Accessory Systems.

Two storied high forest system.

Fr. Futaie a double etage.

Ger. Zweihiebiger Hoschwald.

Obtained by underplanting a high forest after it has been opened up.

Partly artificial.


High forest with reserves systems.

Obtained by reserving part of the crop for the whole or part of a second rotation.

Mainly natural.


Improvement felling system.

Removal of interior growing stock of all ages and tending the better elements of the crop.



Coppice Systems.

The simple coppice system.

Fr. Taillis simple.

Ger. Niederwald.

Crop removed by compartment by clear felling, with no reservation of a shelterwood.

Coppice often assisted by artificial regeneration in strips, lines, of large rabs.


The coppice of two rotations system.

Ger. Niederwald uberhaltetrieb.

Part of the crop reserved for the whole of the second rotation to produce larger material.


Underwood and overwood even-aged but of different ages.

The shelterwood coppice system.

Crop removed by compartment by clear-felling, except that a shelterwood is retained for short interval.



The coppice with standards system.

Fr. Taillis souse Futaie,

Taillis compose.

Ger. Mitterwald.

Part of the crop reserved to from an uneven-aged overwood.

Mainly coppice.

Underwood even-aged. Overwood uneven-aged.

The coppice with reserves systems.

Part of the crop sapling and poles, reserved singly or in-groups for part or whole of the second rotation.

Mainly coppice

Underwood even-aged. Overwood uneven-aged.

The selection coppice system.

Fr. Taillis, furete,


Ger. Geplenterter Niederwald.

Stems removed as in the selection system, but relying on coppice regeneration.

Rotation short.

Mainly coppice.


The pollard system.

Removal of exploitable material as under the simple coppice system, but by periodical pollarding.




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